new papers on lens model analyses

We have recently extended the use of the lens model for a more comprehensive understanding of personality and interpersonal perceptions at zero acquaintance. New papers include an integrative lens model approach to bias and accuracy in human inferences recently published in JPSP , an integration of the lens model with dual process models, in press in JPSP , and an overview of the use of the lens model in personality psychology including these new developments now in press in Current Directions in Psychological Science (21.12.2012)

Nestler, S.& Back, M.D. (in press). Applications and extensions of the lens model to understand interpersonal judgments at zero acquaintance. Current Directions in Psychological Science.

Abstract: The present article reviews current research on the application and extension of the lens model to interpersonal judgments. We first explain how the basic lens model can be used to describe the processes underlying the accuracy of personality judgments at zero acquaintance. Then we outline how this model can be differentiated by assimilating it with research on intuitive and reflective personality judgments, implicit and explicit personality tests and more or less controlled behavior. We continue by integrating the research on the lens model with research on judgmental errors and knowledge updating. Finally, we describe extensions of the lens model to other interpersonal phenomena at zero acquaintance such as meta-accuracy and liking. Altogether, this review shows that the lens model is a persuasive and flexible framework that can be used to understand interpersonal judgments.

Hirschmüller, S., Egloff, B., Nestler, S., Back, M. D. (in press). The dual lens model: A comprehensive framework for understanding self-other agreement of personalty judgments at zero acquaintance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Abstract: An integrative framework for the examination of self– other agreement of personality judgments at zero acquaintance is outlined that integrates dualistic approaches to personality, behavior, and personality judgments within the Brunswikian (1956) lens model. The dual lens model (DLM) distinguishes between explicit and implicit self-concepts of personality, controlled and automatic cues, and deliberate and intuitive personality judgments. In a first application of the DLM, targets (N = 56) were videotaped during short self-introductions, and direct and indirect measures of extraversion as well as a number of physical, kinesic, vocal, and verbal cues were obtained. Perceivers judged targets’ extraversion based on these short video sequences either in a global judgment condition (Study 1: N = 95) or in a deliberate versus an intuitive judgment condition (Study 2: N = 82). In both studies, results showed that extraversion judgments at zero acquaintance were correlated with both the explicit and the implicit self-concept of extraversion (self– other agreement). The self– other correlation for explicit extraversion was fully mediated by the utilization of valid controlled cues, and it was fully mediated by the utilization of valid automatic cues for the implicit self. Whereas judgment condition did not moderate self– other agreement, perceivers’ intuitive judgment style was associated with higher levels of self– other agreement, a relation that could be explained by DLM analyses. Results underline the utility of the proposed framework for the study of interpersonal judgments.

Nestler, S., Egloff, B., Küfner, A. C. P., & Back, M. D. (2012). An integrative lens model approach to bias and accuracy in human inferences: Hindsight effects and knowledge updating in personality judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 698-717.

Abstract: The present article integrates research on the accurate inference of personality traits with process models of hindsight bias (the tendency to exaggerate in hindsight what one had said in foresight). Specifically, the article suggests a new model that integrates assumptions of the lens model on accurate personality judgments and accounts that view hindsight effects as a by-product of knowledge updating. We suggest 3 processes that have the potential to explain the occurrence of hindsight effects in personality judgments: (a) changes in an individual’s cue perceptions, (b) changes in the utilization of more valid cues, and (c) changes in the consistency with which cue knowledge is applied. In 2 studies (N1 = 91, N2 = 93), participants were presented with target pictures and were asked to judge each target’s levels of the Big Five. Thereafter, they received feedback and had to recall their original judgments. Results show that there were clear hindsight effects for all 5 personality dimensions. Importantly, we found evidence that both the utilization of more valid cues and changes in cue perceptions— but not changes in the consistency with which cue knowledge is applied—account for the hindsight effects. Implications of these results for models explaining hindsight effects, the inference of personality judgments, and the accuracy of these inferences are discussed.